Arizona Elk Society Wildlife Water Management Program 2015

For several decades, development of waters to benefit wildlife populations has been a key management practice but the program has been challenged due to largely hypothesized adverse impacts such as the spread of diseases, increased predation, competition of other ungulates, and expansion of non-native pollinators (Rosenstock et al. 1999). One of the first references for the need to construct wildlife waters is found in one of the first texts on wildlife management (Leopold 1933) where the author stated that water was one of the three key components of wildlife habitat. While the practice of developing wildlife waters was unchallenged for many years, Broyles (1995) was one of the first who suggested that there was no supporting documentation that wildlife waters provided benefit to wildlife and in fact proposed that there were potential negative impacts associated with their development.